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Posted by - [RG] C++
Post date - 06-09-2004, 01:57 PM
Planking the hull.
The most tedious part of the shipmodel to work on is the planking of the hull. I think the planking part made many modelers mad or quit the build all together. Mostly the manuals provided with the kit state in one line "plank the hull." right!
Some kits have photos included to guide you with the process of planking the hull, but as i found out the pictures generally show how it is not to be done. My first kit is build right out the box and also i used the photos supplied with the kit to guide me through the planking process. All went well and i was content with the result. Before i started on another ship i did some extended research and ordered some books concerning period ship construction. I also visited nautical museums and reconstructions of period ships.
Comparing the results of the research with the build of my first ship, i noticed that the planking was actually incorrect. The photo's supplied with the kit also showed the incorrect run of the planks. I think, and this is also stated in certain books, that the planks always ran from bow to stern. So the same numbers of planks are running the entire length on the ship.
So this is wrong :
Now, on my second ship i want to try it the right way. There are allot of methods to determine the run of the planks but i use the following method:
Before starting to take measurements on the hull, lay two planks on the model. the garboard (first plank at the keel, this plank need to be tapered) and the first plank below the deck. When this is done a table has to be drawn showing all the bulkheads and the distance between to two planks. It is important that the curve is taken into account when measuring the distance.
Here is a picture of the starting point, notice the table with all the measurements
When all measurements are done, compare the distances of the left and right side of the hull, notice that they should be equal for each bulkhead. Now divide all distances with two and mark a line on the bulkhead. For example :
Distance bulkhead = 100 mm, then mark a line at 50 mm.
Perform this exercise for all the bulkheads on both sides. After marking all the bulkheads, lay a test plank from bow to stern along the marks on the bulkheads. Eye test the run of the plank along the hull and pin it down. It is best that the plank follows exactly the markers, but if not then adjust the test plank and rerun the measurement table in order to compromise for the deviation between the test plank and the marker.
Here is a picture showing all the markers on each bulkhead :
Write down all distances in the table, and measure the width of the planks u are going to use. Now take the largest bulkhead distance from the table and divide the numbers with the width of the plank. For example :
Largest distance bulkhead = 45 mm
Width plank = 5mm
So we need to run 45/5 = 9 planks, from bow to stern from keel to the middle markers or from the deck to the middle markers. Note : in total we need 2*45 mm / 5 mm = 18 planks to cover the largest bulkhead distance. Note that the largest distance can be found midships and the smallest at the bow.
The next step is to calculate the amount of material that has to be taken of the plank at a each bulkhead. Perform this exercise by subtracting the largest distance with the distance of the other bulkheads. For example :
Bulkhead A distance = 30 mm
This means that the width of the 9 planks cannot exceed 30 mm. Calculate the width of a single plank by dividing the 30 mm by the number of planks. In our example :
Bulkhead A distance = 30mm / 9 planks = 3.33 mm
The width of the material to be taken of each plank can be calculated by the difference between the largest distance and the distance of the bulkhead A. Thus :
Largest distance 45 mm - Bulkhead A distance 30 mm / 9 planks = 1.66 mm
Note that adding both results should show the original width of the plank, 1.66 mm + 3.33 mm = 5 mm. Write down all the results for each bulkhead in the table.
Of course, no one can measure 1.666666 mm, and that accuracy is not desired when performing the first layer of planks so a little trick can be used to speed up the process.
Make some paper lengths and perform the next exercise for each bulkhead: Mark a line on the paper strip measuring ~3.3 mm from each other and take the measurements over on the bulkhead by running the marked paper strip along it. Now not all plank have a exact equal width but this is good enough for the first layer. One benefit for this is that each single plank is marked on the bulkheads.
Numbers all the markers and the position of the bulkhead on the plank then sand it. Notice : broken planks can be repaired as can be seen here :http://members.chello.nl/n.franke/LeHussard/p5.JPG
Its helps to put numbers at the markers to prevent any mistakes in lining up the plank against the wrong marker. The planks can now be put on and should follow the markers placed on each bulkhead. It is best to test run the plank first and mark the bulkhead positions on the plank. Then lookup the plank width in the measurement table at that given bulkhead and sand the plank to that width. Needless to say that the plank must be sanded to a smooth line going along all the markers.
Make sure each plank has the same width at a given bulkhead, planks run all the way from bow to stern :http://members.chello.nl/n.franke/LeHussard/p8.JPG
There are some things to take into account :
a) planks tense to creep up at the bow and fan out at the stern, it is important that all the planks must follow the markers, when this is impossible then rerun all the measurements.
b) planks are never tapered half their length, so if the original plank is 5 mm in width then no more than 2.5 mm can be taken of the plank at a certain point. If this is the case then use a stealer or rerun the measurement table.
c) count the number of planks supplied with the kit and compare the count with the number of planks required.
d) Mark the location of the bulkhead on the keels because if u don't then it is possible that your drill meets some copper nails when trunneling the second layer.
Another picture, the first half is almost done :
When planking the hull using the thick wood supplied then some problems might occur at the stern of the ship. Some planks on the hull need to be twisted to compensate for the angle at the stern. Some planks might and some do not lay perfectly flat on the stern causing ridges to appear between the planks. These ridges must be filled with either wood filler or a mixture from saw dust and white glue. After applying the filler and sanding the area the stern should be fine.
Here's a picture of such repair, before sanding.
Planking the rest of the hull
When the first half of the hull is planked from keel to the waterline, then the rest of the hull can be planked from the deck to meet the existing planking. Using the this method you are assured that the top planks follow the sheer (deck) line, and the lower planks follow the garboard(keel) line. The plank in the middle will compromise between the two runnings.
The same method used for planking the lower planks can be applied to the upper planking. So again create the measurement table, take all the bulkhead measurements and determine the width of a single plank at a given bulkhead. Mark all the bulk heads and start applying the planks.
Here is a picture of the upper planking marks.
Make sure u keep following the marks u made or else there won't be any room for the remaining planks. This problem is most evident at the bow of the ship were the bulkhead circumvence is smaller compared to the midhip bulkheads.
Here is a picture showing the running of the lower and upper planks .
After finishing the hull it is advised to drain the hull using white glue. This procedure ensures that all the planks become hard and are glued to each other. A hard solid hull is required before starting with the second layer. Ofcouse u can glue the planks together during the planking phase, but once the plank is glued it's difficult to get it off when a error slips in. It is also possible to ommit the nails when glueing in the planking phase, but its possible to plan the virtual frames such way that the nails can be avoided. It is also possible to drill right through the nail to using a mill. Anyway, i prefer the glueing after the planking is finished.
Glueing the hull
When all is finished the hull can be sanded leaving a smooth hard planking job strong enough to support the second layer. But this is another story yet to come.
For so far my story, there will be a follow up, Hopefully with some tips from the other forum members :=)
When u got any suggestions or feel that this is definitely the wrong way to do it then say so, in the end im only human.
Scroll down to see more.
Happy building. Of course, in case of questions u are helped.
Posted by - [RG] C++
Post date - 11-27-2004, 11:13 AM
Top post continued.
Part two if the workshop.
Adding the second layer
The second layer of planking the the layer that is seen when the model is on display, so this layer must be as perfect as possible. I choose to trunnel all the planks adding more realism.
It is important that the hull is perfectly smooth by now, if not then u cannot proceed!
Allocating the virtual frames
To correctly implement the second layer of planks we need to now were the tree nails need to go and were the position of all the butt ends are. This would be a easy job if this was a plank on frame model, unfortunately this is a plank on bulkhead model. So what we need to do is convert the plank on bulkhead model into a plank on frame model, thus we need to determine the position of the frames.
Looking at the plans of this ship, u can see that the top of all the frames extend through the deck, the top of the frames are used to attach the gun whale. Thus all we need to do is draw vertical lines on the drawing revealing the position of the frames and de deck beams.
Here is a picture showing the reworked plank, the virtual deck beams have been added.
Drawing the virtual frames
When the plan is updated with the location of all the frames they can be drawn on the actual model. Transfer the measurement made on the plan to the deck of the ship. Use a pencil to draw the virtual frame from the deck to the keel.
Important is that the frame is square to the keel not the planking. It is difficult to draw a strait line on the curved hull, but u can use some stiff cardboard as guide.
After drawing all the lines, the thickness of the frames has to be determined. U can measure the thickness from the plan.
Here u see a picture of all the virtual frames, front view.
The frames are coloured so no mistake can be made when drawing the planking.
Notice that the red frames line up with the deck beams, the green frames stop under the deck.
Because the plan does not show all the detail u need, there are some choices to make when marking the frames.
Here a picture showing the stern frames, they are just a estimation
(The stern frames were later reworked into cant frames, not shown on this picture)
Be sure that the red deck beams are lined up with the red frames, if not then the running of the deck tree nails looks odd when comparing them with the nails running over the hull.
The tree nails only will make the virtual frame stand out, so be sure that all the lines are correct.
Make sure the red deck beams are lined up with the red frames.
Now that all the virtual frames are drawn, we can use them as basis for making the planking tables, instead of using the bulkheads (now hidden by the first layer of planking).
When implementing the virtual frames correctly the model will look like if it was made using the plank on frame method. Only i saved some months on making the actual frames. Needless to say that this "virtual framing" method can only be used on fully planked models.
All the planks will be drawn individually on the hull, using the virtual frames as a basis.
Things to consider
Keep in mind that the position of the frames is only as accurate has the plans supplied with the kit. Ofcourse some research can be done to determine the actual position of the frames, but this wil probaly affect the build of the model in whole also.
Notice the position of gun ports before marking the frames, draw the frames according to the plan.
Draw the virtual frames using coloured pencils, they are temporary. The planking is drawn using a waterproof marker, then the virtual frames can be removed leaving only the plank outlines, positions of butt ends and treenail markers.
The frame drawing must be removed prior to planking, otherwise remains of the pencil drawing might get into the glue.
Planking the deck
Next up is planking the deck, before planking of the hull can proceed the gunwale must be installed. Thus we need to plank the deck first.
The deckbeams are already drawn on the false deck, so locating the position of the butt ends is easy. The deck must be planked in a predetermined pattern, this pattern is explained in many books so i won't explain it again here.
Also the position of tree nails is determined when selecting the deck pattern. To make tree nails you could buy some party picks, they have a point on both sides and are made of bamboo. These party picks are perfect for making tree nails.
Just cut of the points from the sticks and discard the rest, ready tree nails ;-).
Plank the deck and carefully drill holes were the tree nails are supposed to be inserted. Next insert all the treenails in the holes.
Make sure the tree nails are following the virtual deck beams that have been drawn on the deck.
Use party picks to make tree nails, mark the nail position, drill holes and insert the nails using little wood glue.
It seems like allot of work, but it isn't. The holes can be manually drilled and the tree nails are easily made. 1600 wooden nails cost me $2. When all the nails are inserted, they mark the position of the deck beams and the virtual frames.
It is important that the drawing is correctly drawn on the hull, the position of all the deck nails must be inline with the nails in the gun whale timber and the hull planking. If the nails don't line up then the whole excersise is pointless.
Almost finished the poop deck.
Cut off the top of the nails, when they are all inserted. Now the deck can be sanded, i found out it was a little hard because of the bamboo nails.
I couldn't wait to see the result, so i sanded half the poop deck to see the final effect. I was suprised to see that all the tops of the nails were brown. Probaly because the frictional heat burned the nails while sanding them to deck level.
Anyway i am pleased that the nails turned out dark, this way i can use the picks also on the hull.
Here is a picture showing portion of the finished poop deck
This picture shows a closeup of the nails, notice the color of the nails before and after sanding
Now the rest of the deck can be planked, following the pattern. I choose to have three planks between each butt end. So number all the deck beams according to the pattern. First lay the king plank, wich is at the center of the deck, then work your way outwards at either side of the king plank.
To simulate the chalking between the deck planks, i choose to mark all the sides of the deck plank with a lead pencil prior to installing.
The butt ends line up with the deck beams, notice the numbering on deck beams
After some time the deck planking is finished, and the treenails can be insterted, running over the deck beams.
Ready for the next phase
After all the treenails are insterted, the deck can be sanded, using some grid paper. When all the treenails are flush with the deck use damp rag to rub all the glue remainings from the deck. Make sure all the glue is removed from the deck, when the deck is clean, use some fine sanding paper to polish the deck.
It took 1200 treenails to make the deck, i runned 50 treenails in one hour, so the trunneling of the deck took me 24 hours. It is not hard, its just work! Make sure all the treenails run straight over the deck, u can use the butt ends to locate the position of the treenails.
Here is a picture of the finished deck
Here is a closeup of the front deck
Now the gunwale can be installed, after that the second layer of planking can be applied.
Things to consider
Be carefull when drilling the holes, my own 1mm drill snapped and is now stuck.
Don't use too much glue, because it is difficult to remove the excess when dried.
Posted by - [RG] C++
Post date - 12-18-2004, 01:16 PM
Peparing the hull to receive the second layer
Now that the gunwale is installed it needs to be sanded to match the ship’s plan. Number all the frames drawn on the hull and determine the height of the gunwale at each frame. Mark the height on the inside of the gunwale and sand it down until the top of the gunwale meets the markers. It is wise to construct one gun and check if it is going to fit in the gun port u have to make later (if any).
When the gunwale is finished the virtual frames can be extended to the top of the gunwale. We need these frames to determine the location of butt ends and nails for the gunwale planking, which needs to be inline with the hull planking details.
Here a picture of how things look like now
Determining the running of the planks
Now the run of the second layer of planking can be determined. As with the first layer of planking a table has to be created showing the circumference of each frame drawn on the hull. When this task is completed divide all the circumferences by two, and mark the position on the hull. Take one of the planks used for the first layer and put it on the hull following all the markers, as done when planking the first layer. At some markers the stress on the plank will increase, but lay the plank is such way the it follows the markers as close as possible.
When the plank is pinned down the run of the planks can be determined by letting the plank veer to a more natural position. Eye the plank and take the pin out of the plank were u want to let it veer into a more natural position. This exercise will have effect on the width of the planks and the number of planks needed to cover the hull.
Here a picture of the test plank, used to determine the running of the planks.
Let’s examine the consequences of letting the plank veer of its original markers. For example the largest measured circumference of a frame can be 90mm, note that the largest circumference can be found mid ships. To cover this section with 5mm wide planks we need:
90mm(mid ship frame circumference) / 5mm(max. plank width) = 18 planks.
More to the bow of the ship, the circumference of a frame can be 40mm, thus to cover this section with the 18 planks, each plank must be tapered to:
40mm(bow frame circumference) / 18(planks) = 2.22mm wide.
This calculation only holds when the test plank runs through all the markers on the hull, marking the circumference of each frame divided by two.
When we let the plank veer 5mm at mid ships it will not only effect the width of the planks needed here but also the number of planks required to cover this section of the hull. For example:
We let the plank veer 5mm towards the keel. 90mm(mid ship frame circumference) / 2 = 45mm. This creates the following situation:
45mm – 5mm = 40 mm / 5mm = 8 planks (needed for covering the space between the keel and the test plank)
45mm + 5mm = 50mm / 5 mm = 10 planks(needed for covering the space between the water way and the test plank)
We still need to install 18 planks 5mm wide to cover the frame mid ships. So not much effect here. Now let’s look what happens at the bow of the ship. 40mm(bow frame circumference) / 2 = 20mm.
20mm – 5mm = 15 mm / 9 = 1.66mm (maximum width of the lower planks at this frame)
20mm + 5mm = 25 mm / 9 = 2.77mm (maximum width of the upper planks at this frame)
Here we can see the effect of letting the plank veer 5 mm towards the keel. The planks that run from the keel to the test plank get compressed, as we still need 18 / 2 = 9 planks fitted in this section (1.66mm instead of 2.22mm). The planks that run from the waterway to the test plank need more width to cover this section (2.77mm instead of 2.22mm).
We cannot compensate the width of the planks by adding more planks because the planks added will effect the width of the planks at mid ships. So what is said here that u must choose between the desired run of the test plank and the consistence of the plank width throughout the planks.
To correctly compensate for the different plank width stealers can be used. Examining the documentation available on hull planking it is stated that no planks can be tapered half it’s width. So if we look at this fictional example the planks at the bow covering the circumference between the keel and the test plank are too narrow(1.66mm). We can use a stealer here to make two planks run into one.
In the example we need for the too narrow planks 4 stealers of 2 x 1.66mm = 3.32mm. Now we have the created the following situation at the bow frame:
4 stealers x 3.32mm + one plank of 1.66 mm = 15mm (original circumference of the bow frame between the keel and the test plank)
Now our problem here is almost solved, the difference in width between the upper and lower planks at the bow frame is now 3.32mm – 2.77mm = 0.55mm instead of 1.66mm – 2.77mm = 1.11mm.
The only problem here is the single plank of 1.66mm at the bow frame we left over after using the stealers. This plank width must be consumed by the garboard plank, but it’s only 1.66mm wide. Thus we need to rerun the calculation and determining the width of the garboard plank.
Let’s look at the facts that hold for the bow frame. 9 planks of 1.66mm come towards the bow frame and are converted into 4 stealers of 3.32mm running from the bow frame and of course the garboard plank of 1.66mm, which is still to narrow.
What we can do now is decrease the width of the planks that are converted into stealers even further, making room for increase of the garboard plank width at the bow frame.
The minimum width required for the garboard plank is half the original plank width, thus 5mm / 2 = 2.5mm.
Now calculate the width that is leftover for the 8 planks:
15mm(circumference between the test plank and the keel) – 2.5mm = 17.5mm / 8 planks = 1.56mm
Now we can use 4 stealers of 2 x 1.56mm = 3.1mm and a garboard width of 2.5mm at the bow frame.
Of course 1.56mm is way too narrow for the planks that come towards the bow frame we are speaking of, so we need to find the frame position were the planks are just over half the plank width and start the stealers from here. Thus:
9 planks x 2.5mm = 22.5mm, (convert 8 planks into 4 stealers of 5mm and the garboard of 2.5mm)
We need to find the frame which circumference is at least 22.5mm between the keel and the test plank, and start the stealers from there. As a consequence the following facts will hold for the bow frame in our example:
4 stealers coming in and the garboard plank. Thus the tapering needed for the stealers and the garboard can be calculated:
15mm(bow frame circumference) / 5(4 stealers + garboard plank) = 3mm width for the stealers and the garboard plank at the bow frame.
Thus the difference in the upper and lower plank width installed at the bow frame is now:
3mm(stealer width, lower planks) – 2.77mm(upper planks) = 0.23mm
Of course more planks are installed now between the water way and the test plank than between the keel and the test plank, but in fact the stealer counts for two planks equalling the difference.
In this detailed calculation u can see the possible consequences when changing the run of the test plank. It is up to you to choose between the run of the planks and the number of stealers u want to use. The more the test plank deviates from the markers marking the middle of the frame’s circumference, the more work u have to do to compensate in the planks width at a certain frame.
Of course u can determine the maximum amount of deviation between the test plank and the frame’s circumference middle markers without using any stealer but I will show this when using this example calculation in a practical manner on the hull I am building.
Applying the second layer of planks
When all the circumferences of the frames have been measured and noted down in a table, the markers can be applied on the hull. The markers indicate the width of a single plank at each frame. The width of the plank can be determined using the calculation explained in the previous paragraph.
Number all the markings so no mistake can be made in which marker is for what plank.
Here is a picture of the markers and the green line showing the run of the planks.
The bow of the ship however need some special attention. When the markers are just drawn on the bow of ship, then the planks will overshoot them. This is because the planks do not run square over the frames. As is clearly shown on the pictures the angle of the planks with respect to the bow frames is almost 45 degrees. This means that the width of the plank must be smaller than calculated. This problem occurs at the bow and at the stern of the hull.
So for instance: if calculated that 18 planks are needed to cover the hull and the bow frame circumference is 60mm, then the plank width at the bow should be
60mm / 18 planks = 3.33mm
However, the planks come towards the bow frame in a angle of 45 degrees so the plank width at the bow will be:
( a x a ) + ( b x b ) = (c x c )
Square root of (3.33 x 3.33) + (3.33 x 3.33 ) = 4.7mm
Here is a link to the Pythagoras formula http://www.drking.plus.com/hexagons/pythag/
This means if the width of the planks is calculated to be 3mm at the bow, then the planks must be cut to :
a = b
a = square root of ( ( c * c ) / 2 )
Square root of ( (3mm * 3mm) / 2 ) = 2.12mm plank width.
Here the bow of the ship is shown, notice that the bow planks need more space than their width.
This effect is valid for all the planks that do not run square over the frame, this is certainly the fact at the bow of the ship. This calculation must be done to predict were the planks end up on the hull.
The markers of the bow can be calculated and drawn on the hull, then the planking can start. Use the same plank length as the deck, start with the bow of the ship because this is the most difficult part as these planks need lost of tapering.
Make sure all the planks are fitted without gaps between them, and clean the planks regular to avoid excess glue making stains on the planks installed.
Here is a closeup of the planking.
I have a book containing some nice illustrations, here are some of them:
Here a drawing of a Dutch ship under contruction.
Here a drawing of some guy bending the hull planks.
Here another drawing of a Dutch ship under contructions.
Notes on the planking
As is obvious the planks length is determined by the pattern used and the spacing between the frames. In this example there are three planks between each butt end on a single frame, thus one hull planks must cover four frames.
Do not use short planks on the model, when a planks only covers two frames then use planks covering these two frames besides the other frames it covers. Very short planks that only cover two frames were rarely used on ships, it was easier and structural stronger to use a planks that was a little longer.
Marking the planks
Optional is to mark the edges of each planks using a black pencil to simulate the tar. Doing so makes each hull planks stand out and one can see its outline easily.
Needless to say that the hull planking must be near perfect, as each error in the shape of the hull plank is amplified by the black lines surrounding the plank.
When using small planks make sure to alternate between the planking strips, so no adjacent planks as the same run of grain. This even more amplifies the individual planks on the hull.
Here is a picture of the finished lower planking, you can see each individual plank clearly.
The method of tapering used to make the planks fit is of your choosing. But keep in mind that each planks must be tapered to fit a curved hull. Tapering planks by means of cutting with a knife will produce straight lines which is not always desired. When a planks needs a curve to fit then sand the planks so match the curve and do not stress the planks into place.
Here is a picture of the stern of the model, notice that there are no gaps and no stealers present.
Of course using small planks instead of strips is optional, but as I found out working with smaller planks is more easier. You can plank the bow first and works your way to the stern of the model. The bow planks and the stern planks are difficult to make, so using small planks you can concentrate on this part without concerning about the tapering needed mid ships or at the stern.
Scroll down for part 4
Posted by - flywater
Post date - 12-18-2004, 05:34 PM
C++, some very good words of wisdom regarding detailing! Thank you for stating what is easily thought of and all too easily forgotten, that is that, sometimes, less is more. Thank you also for this detailed discussion, I will be using some of the tricks on the model I am currently building!
Posted by - [RG] C++
Post date - 03-01-2005, 11:49 AM
Completing the planking
Due to using small planks, repair on the hull are easy. When a certain plank becomes damaged during the planking process, then simply remove it and place a new one.
Here is a picture of such a repair
When the second layer of planks is finished the hull must be cleaned of all glue residue. Use a wet rag and give the hull a good scrub, when the hull dries u can see the glue stains which show up fogged by the water. It is important that the hull is free of these stains, because the glue stains will also fog when applying the varnish.
If the hull is to be trunneled then do not sand it yet, but leave it rough until all the tree nails are inserted. Here a list of pictures showing the rough second layer of planking.
Here is a picture of the second planking
Here is a closeup of the stern, the picture is flipped over
Here is a closeup of the bow, the picture is flipped over
Here is a closeup of the mid ship butt ends
Trunneling the hull
For extra detail, the hull can be trunneled. In fact this is almost identical to the trunneling of the deck. All the planks are fastened to the first layer by pushing wood pegs through them, along the circumvence of the frame. I am not sure what trunneling pattern is used, most of the modeling books are not very clear about this subject. You can find models using a single peg or two pegs in different patterns.
I will use the same pattern as used on the deck, so a two peg diagonal pattern. This pattern is found on the ships a visited, but you have to decide for yourself what pattern to use.
For pegs use the party sticks also used on the deck, they are cheap and fast to produce. However, you can also make your own pegs by running dowels through a drawing plate.
To prevent the planks from chipping, it is advised to run a piece of transparent tape over the butt ends before drilling the holes. You can even draw the frame again on the tape to locate the position of the pegs.
Here is a picture of the tape and the frame. The tape prevent the planks from chipping while drilling the holes.
All the holes are drilled by hand, if you use a motorized drill, there is a chance that the planks get ruined by a unfortunate move.
Here is a picture showing the holes, they are drilled through the tape.
When the holes are drilled, the tape can be removed showing the clean holes in which the pegs can be inserted.
Here a picture showing the holes.
Now the pegs can be inserted. Use a drop of white glue to fill the hole, then dilute the peg in the same glue. Insert the peg in the hole and turn it around a few times, then give it a good push.
Here a picture of all the pegs in this frame.
When the glue is dry, the pegs can be cut to hull level. Because the planks get smaller in width when progressing to the bow, smaller holes must be drilled in order to keep to the same pattern for all the frames.
Besides that the trunneling adds some detail to the model, they firmly attach the second layer of planks to the first layer of planks. This way the chance that planks come loose from the model is minimal.
The pegs are expanding, because they absorb the glue, and plug the hole. The drilling of holes is easy because the drill meets only the first and second layer of planks, and not a real frame.
Here a extreme close up of how things look on the inside of the hull.
Another extreme close up on the pegs.
I was concerned about the structural integrity of the hull after drilling so many holes, but the hull does not seem to suffer from the trunneling. The pegs and the glue fill the hole, due to the conical shape they cause stress on the surface of the hull, making the hull more resistant on sudden impacts.
Here a picture of the hull, while the trunneling progresses.
Notice on the pictures that all the pegs meet up at the keel and the deck, circumventing the entire hull.
Because of the repetitive work involved it is wise too alternate between jobs.
After all the pegs have been inserted the hull must be cleaned from all glue residu. First give the hull a quick sand, then rub all the glue residu surrounding the pegs. It is important that all the glue is removed. When the hull is wet and drying you can see the glue stains because they stand out white.
When the hull is clean you can sand it, until all the pegs are flush with the hull.
Here are the final pictures concerning the planking phase.
Here a closeup on the stern
Here a closeup on the hull, notice that the deck pegs line up with the hull pegs
Here a picture of the finished planking
The hull can now be finished. I hope this thread helped you in some way.
Some after thoughs on the detailing
Remember that trunneling the hull is optional, u can leave it out. I am no expert, this is my second build, adding detail is no garantee for a succesfull model. It is up to the builder what detail to add or leave out.
For instance: i know my deck planking is probaly to wide, because i use the wood supplied with the kit which is 5mm wide. The kit suppliers use the same wood over a range of kits regardless the scale. Also my nails might be to big for this model, i didn't check it.
But i am happy with the way it turns out, u build the model for yourself not for others, so don't bother with the details if u don't want to. Leaving out details does not mean the model will be inferior, maybe it will even be more beautifull than a model with a lot of detail. In the end it is the builders skill that counts, not the number of cannons.
What i want to say is, don't believe blindly all the advise of the so called "experts" including myself. Build the model the way you think is comfortable, building a wooden ship is for fun not to impress others because there will always be someone better than u and i.
All finished, next. Lol.
If you have any questions or suggestions regarding this thread feel free to ask.
I will finish with : "Build what you like, like what you build".
user from the DDM
Just a quick question regarding your wooden nails (aka round toothpicks , which although make a very striking and attractive model may be a bit out of scale?. What scale is that Scottish Maid that you are using in your hull planking practicum? The reason I ask is that if it's, let's say 1/64 scale, and assuming a typical wooden "nail" was say 2 inches (totally not sure but seems that even 2 inches would be a bit large) then that would mean that on a 1/64 model the wooden peg would have to be 0.03125 inches in diameter - hardly discernable to the human eye I would guess.
Don't get me wrong the planking job you did was magnificent but I'm just wodering about scaling and the wooden "nails" used in your practicum... they just seem a little too large diameter wise... Just wondering for scale and authenticity if leaving such details out would be a more appropriate approach?
Very good question "X". The models shown in the practicum is of scale 1:50.
I drilled 1mm holes for the pegs, so the diameter of the peg in real life would be 50x1mm = 50mm. This is ok for the wooden pegs, they were considerably larger in diameter than metal nails. Further to the bow and the stern i drilled resp. 0.8mm and 0.5mm to keep the same pattern for the tapered section of the hull.
The hull you see on the pictures is unfinished, coloured stains will be used on the hull when it is completed, blending the nails and the planking towards the stain colour.
The pegs have another important purpose : they fix the second layer of planks to the first layer of planks, making it impossible for a plank to become disattached may the white glue bond ever fail.
It is advised to pin everything to the model, acting as a backup fixure to the glue bond.
At some point you have to decide what accuracy and details you want for the model. Making everthing in scale and adding every detail is great, but it increases the building time, skill and knowledge required. I am by all means still a beginner in ship building, so it is better for me to build some models "out the box" adding detail as i learn about period ship construction.
I am happy that i could help, i wish you all the best with the project.
Posted by - philipmspb
Post date - 03-23-2005, 10:29 AM
most excellent article. I am a novice at planking
Posted by - wirewolf
Post date - 03-23-2005, 10:43 AM
Here's all four parts in the Articles section:
Each page has a down load link for all the images from each part, and are formated for printing out
Posted by - anthonyt75
Post date - 11-26-2005, 09:19 AM
very helpful, I was planking wrong all this time. Thanks
Posted by - reggie
Post date - 12-12-2005, 07:20 PM
Posted by - RichieC
Post date - 11-27-2007, 02:01 AM
Mr. Catmeatpp, you'll note that the Wolf, as always, is on top of your issue with the image/link problem. Note his post 3 above yours. He has all the images that go along with the article if you click on his link. For the record, I too was disappointed with the lack of images till I found his "reply" and smiled to myself as this was yet another instance of his ever present attention to detail and why this is among the very best forums of any sort I have had the pleasure of reading through. You'll be hard pressed to find a loose knot here... ; )
Posted by - [RG] C++
Post date - 03-13-2008, 02:05 PM
Hmm, my web page is offline. The photo's however are still available on this website, to view: Goto articles and then publishers, then scroll to [RG] C++.
Posted by - avasil
Post date - 03-06-2009, 10:24 PM
I tried the links to your pictures and was directed to a German "erotika" site.
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